About Programming Paradigms

In recent years, there has been a flood of publications about the so called “functional programming” paradigm. The paradigm can be seen as a challenger to the more traditional “imperative programming” approach. It appears also that sometimes this “object oriented programming” is seen as the awkward drunk cousin of the entirely evil “imperative programming”. You can’t have one without the other at your party!

Well, the case may actually not be that simple! It appears that there is often some confusion whereby many people think that the immutability principle is a specific feature of the functional programming (FP) alone. In the following I’ll play around with objects and try to mix some immutability into object oriented programming approach.

Let’s see if it works!

Applying Immutability Principle in Object Oriented Programming

In the example coming soon I’ll use TypeScript programming language to highlight a design pattern that embeds some immutability into object oriented programming (OOP).

Let’s implement an object oriented LanguageCourse object that allows to add language courses. The LanguageCourse object must also be able to merge with other LanguageCourse objects.

This goal is best achieved by separating two aspects of an object into their own entities, namely, the data, and the object itself, which will provide instance methods on top of the wrapped-in data object.

First, we decide that a LanguageCourse can have a number of students that will attend the course.

Let’s create a student object. For simplicity, we’ll define the student as a plain interface object at this point that won’t have any instance methods:

interface StudentData {
  name: string;
  age: number;

Now we define language course’s data interface to describe what a language course is:

interface LanguageCourseData {
   name: string;
   description: string;
   attendees: StudentData[];

This means that a language course has a name, description and any number of attendees, which are students. Now we are ready to go adding one student to a language course in a consistent OOP fashion.

The Immutable Way

If apply to add one student to the course, we would write a standalone function for that:

const addStudentToLanguageCourse = 
    (course: LanguageCourseData, student: StudentData): LanguageCourse => ({
    attendees: [

The function above merges a student object into a language course object whereby the immutability principle is applied - the existing course object isn’t changed at all, rather a new language course object is created altogether by taking advantage of spread operator. The resulting course object is like its predecessor except its attendees array will now contain the given student object.

The OOP Style Immutable Objects

When creating immutability-loyal objects in the OOP way, the first thing to keep in mind is to separate data objects into two distinct entities, which are the data - the real data that we care about - and the logic, which is the OOP layer on top of the data. The OOP layer can be understood as a wrapper that provides methods to access, query and modify those underlying data objects. By modifying I actually mean creating new versions of the existing ones following the immutability principle. It’s just that “modify” is easier to speak out than the latter long phrase to explain that “modify” does not mean “mutate” here!

class LanguageCourse {

    private data: LanguageCourseData;
    constructor(data: LanguageCourse) {
        this.data = data;
    public addStudent = 
        (student: StudentData): LanguageCourse => new LanguageCourse({
        attendees: [
    public getAttendeesCount = (): number => this.data.attendees.length;

I create now an object oriented language course that hasn’t any attendees yet (empty array).

const course: LanguageCourse = new LanguageCourse({
    name: "Learn ancient Alderaanian",
    description: "basic phrases",
    attendees: []

Now I have a course object. I add the first student:

const firstStudent: StudentData = {
  name: "First-born Unicorn",
  age: 3121012

const courseWithStudent: LanguageCourse = course.addStudent(firstStudent);

Let’s verify that there’s now one student enrolled:

const attendeesCount: number = courseWithStudent.getAttendeesCount();
// It's going to be 1 :)

Evaluating the Results

These code samples prove that in deed it is possible to create object oriented code that applies immutability principle to object-bound instance methods. Therefore, it can hardly be claimed that mutability as is any argument to avoid object oriented programming. There is nothing to prevent you from placing immutable functions into object instances.

Despite the fact that this technically works, it may not often be the most intuitive approach to take on. In practice, Therefore I would be hesitant to largely take this kind of approach in a project, though.

How about using classes as mere namespaces for functions? I’ll be soon back in the twilight zone of mixing the deep waters of code!